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UNHA DE CADA OITO ESPECIES DE AVES DO PLANETA ESTÁ EN RISCO DE EXTINCIÓN
03/12/2019

Foto: SEO/BirdLife.

 

BirdLife International presentou no Cumio sobre rutas migratorias, que tivo lugar en Abu Dhabi, o informe sobre o estado das aves no mundo ‘State of the World’s Birds 2018`.

Este informe sobre a saúde das poboacións de aves no mundo advirte que moitas especies de aves coñecidas por seren “comúns” atópanse en perigo de extinción debido a factores coma o cambio climático, a agricultura intensiva, as especies exóticas invasoras, a caza ilegal e a sobrepesca.


O 40% das máis de 11.000 especies de aves que habitan o planeta atópanse en declive poboacional e unha de cada oito está en situación de ameaza. É a principal conclusión da avaliación global sobre o estado da avifauna realizada pola federación ambiental BirdLife, da que SEO/BirdLife forma parte e que presentou, en Abu Dhabi, no marco dun encontro internacional sobre aves migratorias.


Entre as especies destacadas polos autores encóntrase a rula, especie qUe experimenta unha caída das súas poboacións do 25,02% no período 1998-2017  en España. O estudo tamén salienta a fráxil situación de aves tan populares coma o arao papagaio, o papagaio gris ou o bufo alpino.


En termos xerais, as prácticas agrícolas insostibles constitúen o maior problema para as aves en todo o mundo. De feito, a expansión e intensificación agrícola, a principal causa a nivel global, afecta a 1.091 aves ameazadas a nivel mundial (74%). Séguea a corta, que afecta 734 especies (50%) e, despois, as especies exóticas invasoras, que ameazan 578 (39%) especies de aves. Así mesmo, a caza e a captura de aves poñen en perigo 517, o 35% das especies.


Ademais destas ameazas, xa clásicas, os autores do estudo subliñaron que o cambio climático representa unha ameaza emerxente e cada vez máis grave. Neste momento, aféctalles ao 33% das especies globalmente ameazadas e agrava as ameazas que sofren o resto de aves.


A investigación resalta, entre outras ameazas, o uso de insecticidas neurotóxicos, os coñecidos neonicotinoideas, cuxo efecto devastador para as poboacións de aves acumula evidencias. Por exemplo, un recente estudo sobre individuos de pardal de coroa branca expostos a este composto constata perda dunha cuarta parte da súa masa corporal e das súas reservas de graxa. A neurotoxina tamén lle afectou á orientación migratoria das aves.


“A continua deterioración das aves no mundo ha de observarse como un problema ambiental, social e, tamén, económico. As tendencias poboacionais das aves, o grupo faunístico mellor estudado, reflicten a miúdo as doutras especies e son altamente sensibles aos cambios do medio ambiente. As malas noticias para as aves son malas noticias para o planeta e para todos os que vivimos nel.

 
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